Christians in a Doomed World

By F. M. Perry, October 1994

Since the explosion of the first atomic bombs in 1945 we humans of the world have been aware that we have within our own control means by which we can bring about the destruction of our own world. Indeed, because of the foibles of human nature, soon after we realized that we had such enormous destructive power we brought the world to the brink of "mutually assured destruction" as two great nations of the world threatened to destroy each other. Although now in 1994 the two great nations have agreed to withdraw their threats against each other, nuclear bombs and missiles have become unsecured in the world like loose bombs on the deck of a ship in stormy seas. The power of nuclear energy for destructive purposes has now been released helter-skelter into a largely Godless world, a world without moral restraint.

But while the world has been struggling to escape the threat of "mutually assured destruction" by nuclear bombs, we have gradually become aware of other threats of destruction to our world system which also may occur catastrophically. For instance, I first became aware in 1960 of the population "explosion" and the possible future exhaustion of world resources to support the expanding world population. As an engineering manager I used to meet for 7:00 AM study breakfasts once a week to discuss with other engineers and managers the future of our world system and our company's possible part in it. Although we were only a part of a relatively small General Electric Company department, the GE corporate headquarters encouraged these kinds of extra-curricula studies and sent us books and copies of articles from periodicals to provide statistical data about the status of our world system and some of the current thinking about the future of the world.

We immediately became aware that the human population of the world was rapidly expanding and that world resources for the support of the population were being depleted. Concerning population growth, I remember learning that it occurs in a pattern that must be described as exponential. It was then that I first heard population growth likened to the classic example of pond weed growth which each day doubles the amount of pond surface covered and is projected to cover the entire pond in thirty days. We noted that during the first 28 days of growth, very little of the pond surface was covered. However, on the 29th day fully half of the pond surface was covered and on the 30th day the entire pond was covered. We began to realize that exponential growth of population, even at what may appear to be a low percentage rate, contains the potential for big surprises within very short periods of years.

Concerning world resources to provide life support to the growing population, even in 1960 it was clear to us that resources were being depleted. Agricultural land for growing food was going out of production rapidly due to erosion and urban encroachment. Some eroded land was being reclaimed and there were some developments in agriculture that increased the yield of the land still in use. But, the statistics indicated that the net result was still a steady drop, year after year, in arable land. It was clear also that other non-renewable resources were disappearing and that these would have deleterious effects on the life support of the ever growing population.

During those studies in 1960 I don't remember that we thought much about pollution of the land, sea, and air environment, about the appearance and spread of new diseases, about tribal warfare and refugee migrations, about the effects of drugs and crime, or a number of other things which we now know also affect the viability of the world system. But, we were reminded that world population growth could not continue unchecked in a world of limited resources. It certainly appeared to us that some time in the next century the world system would be subject to complete break down with dire consequences to human beings.

But, the next century seemed so far away that we did not feel really threatened in 1960. I remember there were expressions in our group of confidence that science and technology would take care of agricultural problems and that family planning would eventually hold down population growth. Some even expressed the thought that by the time viability of life on earth might be lost, we will have developed space travel and colonies on other planets to which our excess population might migrate!

However, our lives were taken up by our everyday dealings with tactical situations, primarily the engineering, manufacturing, and marketing of home consumer products at a profit in our own affluent country. There seemed to be little urgency for average citizens like us to think about long term strategic implications of population growth and gradual losses of world resources. Such strategic considerations didn't seem to have much to do with next year's models which had to be ready on schedule. Even in the years since 1960 as I have traveled and seen with my own eyes the struggle to maintain life in "lesser developed countries" of the world, I have looked upon situations tactically, one country at a time for one to five years at a time with little knowledge of what the twenty to thirty year strategic outcome might be in the world system.


Now in 1994 I am retired. I found myself one day recently sitting in a doctor's waiting room, and I picked up an issue of the American Scientist periodical and read an article by Editor Brian Hayes entitled "Balanced on a Pencil Point." The article discussed the world as a working system and the status of that system today with predictions for the next century. What I read made my blood run cold!

Using actual facts and very believable extensions of those facts, the article made it clear that the world system likely will be in a state of collapse by the year 2050 or earlier! I won't be alive then, but my children and grandchildren will! Are we in the last days of the "pond scum" example? The "pond scum" is now visible all around the edges of the "pond." In a "couple more days" the whole pond may be covered!

The article in the American Scientist discussed "The Project on the Predicament of Mankind" sponsored by the Club of Rome, a small organization whose members might best be described as concerned citizens of the world. As early as 1970 the project sought to set up a quantitative computer model of the world system so that the various components of the system might be caused to work together and to predict their future interactions on each other and the system as a whole. The project is now under the leadership of Dennis L. Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has recruited an international team of 17 young specialists to work on the project. They have devised a computer program called World3. Their work to date with this program has been reported in a book called "Beyond the Limits." The underlying message of the book is: If we don't stop burning the candle at both ends, we shall soon be left in the dark. Growth in population and in consumption of resources must be sharply curtailed.

The article explains that the World3 computer model is set up like a plumbing and wiring system with main sectors defined as population, agriculture, industry, natural resources, and pollution. The model has "pipes" and "wires" interconnecting "reservoirs" for the accumulation of the "output material" of the sectors. The flow into and out of the "reservoirs" is regulated by "valves" which open and close in response to "signals" carried by "wires." The connections between the "reservoirs" include "loops" which can be made to supply positive or negative feedback at various points within the system. Quoting directly from the article:


“A diagram of the complete model is an impressively complicated tangle, with well over 100 reservoirs, valves, converters, etc, and an even greater number of connections linking these elements. On the other hand, comparing the model with the real world, one is struck first by how much has been left out. All the diverse resources that drive world industry--metals, energy, feedstocks--are amalgamated into a single generic resource. Likewise all pollutants are represented by one undifferentiated noisome substance. And there is no geography in the model: All the world's nations and peoples are one nation and one people.”

We might ask if such an ideal model is really useful in predicting the future of our real world system which is not nearly ideal. We know that the effects of population, agriculture, industry, natural resources, and pollution do not occur evenly throughout the world. The infrastructure interconnecting the geographical divisions of the world do not provide even distribution of the effects as does the World3 model.

As I read on through the article I concluded that the World3 model predictions are useful. In many respects the predictions indicate dire consequences on the earth within the coming century. But since the earth is not homogenous, the consequences will occur earlier in some portions of the world and later in other portions. While the model may indicate the possibility of breakdown of the complete world system by the year 2050, some geographical areas of the world may experience breakdown much earlier. In fact, it should be obvious that some portions of the world are even now suffering the ominous consequences predicted by the World3 model. Based on the truism that when one part of the world "body" begins to hurt, the entire world "body" hurts, the entire world is already suffering due to partial failure of the world system, witness the tribal conflict and massive population migrations occurring in Rwanda, the disastrous droughts and famines occurring in Africa, and even the tragic chaos occurring in relatively small Haiti.

Some various scenarios for the future of the world system are described by the World3 model by graphs. Scenario 1 is described as follows:


“The graph records levels of population, life expectancy, non-renewable resources, total food production, industrial output and pollution,. The future projected in Scenario 1 is not an attractive one. There is strong growth in population, life expectancy, food and industrial output until about 2025; then there is a dramatic collapse, and by 2100 most of the variables are well below their 1993 levels. Life has become nasty, brutish and short again.


“The main cause of the collapse in Scenario 1 is exhaustion of natural resources. Over the course of the two centuries the world consumes five sixths of the initial stock of resources, and the cost of extracting what remains is so high that it siphons capital away from other sectors of the economy, such as industrial production and agriculture. The World3 group is careful to state that this scenario is not a prediction; no one expects the variables to follow precisely these trajectories. Nevertheless, ‘The Limits of Growth’ [the book report on World3 results] concludes a discussion of the scenario with this admonition: ‘We can thus say with some confidence that, under the assumption of no major change in the present system, population and industrial growth will certainly stop within the next century, at the latest.’


“Using Scenario 1 as a baseline, the World3 group undertook to demonstrate that schemes for prolonging economic growth will not solve the world's problems. For example, suppose the actual supply of natural resources is double the original estimate. The change can be entered into the model simply by clicking on the natural resources reservoir and typing in a new initial value. The consequence of this change is shown in another figure. Population and prosperity continue growing for a little longer, but when the crash comes, it is even steeper and deeper. Interestingly, the cause of the collapse is different: Increased industrial output generates enough pollution to poison the land. Capital is diverted into agriculture to combat this effect, but food production falls anyway, and by the middle of the next century people are starving. Not a pretty prospect.


“Further remedies suggest themselves: technologies for pollution abatement, for the enhancement of agricultural yield, for the control of land erosion, for more efficient exploitation of natural resources. Another graph shows the result of a simulation run in which all these measures were tried at once. The human fate is a little brighter in that the upward trends continue longer and the downward plunge is not quite as steep, but in the end the decline is inescapable. In this case what the future holds is decay and obsolescence. So much effort must be bent toward averting catastrophes that no investment capital is left to maintain and renew the economy.


“The experiment with resource stocks illustrate a general characteristic of the World3 model. No matter how you turn the model's knobs and dials, it is difficult to avoid the crash-and-burn ending. If you view the model as a kind of game, whose object is to achieve the best possible outcome for humanity, you find it is a very hard game to win. The tendency to overshoot and collapse is highly persistent, and policies introduced in the 1990's generally come too late to alter the outcome.”

The article concludes with statements like the following:


“Any population-economy-environment system that has feedback delays and slow physical responses, that has thresholds, and erosive mechanisms, is literally unmanageable.


The questions raised by World3 are important. What are the true dynamics of the global economy and ecosystem? What is the margin of stability? The model suggests that the world is balanced on a pencil point, and it will take every bit of our energy and vision and dexterity to keep it there. According to the model we are at a singular moment in the history of the world--the one and only transition from abundance to scarcity, from growth to stasis. It may well be so. On the other hand, there is the argument--facile, but hard to refute--that if the earth were really so fragile, it would have shattered long ago. the mere longevity of civilization speaks for stability.”

After seeing this article from "The American Scientist" in the doctor's waiting room, I could not get it off my mind. I went to the public library, found the article there, and made a copy of it. I have a copy of the entire article from "The American Scientist" with its Bibliography in my archives at home.


Then I began to look around for any other information I might find on this possible coming world catastrophe. The first to catch my eye was the "U. S. News and World Report" for September 12, 1994 reporting on the United Nations' International Conference on Population and Development being held in Cairo, Egypt during September 1994. The article was entitled "Population Wars" and led off with the statement: "The Earth's population is almost certain to double in the next century, no matter what actions nations take to curb the population explosion. But a United Nations conference that was supposed to considers ways to avert a human and environmental catastrophe has been upstaged by religious attacks on birth control and family planning programs." Another article immediately following in the U. S. News and World Report was one entitled "10 Billion for Dinner, Please". It led off with the statement: "With technology and free trade, the Earth can defy the doomsayers--and feed twice as many people."

These two articles in this popular news magazine took note of the growing international problems but seemed to optimistically predict that they will all be solved, through American leadership, at the last minute, and primarily through technology! A final statement in the second article said: "Americans need to build a more sustainable society, developing land more carefully, farming more wisely and restructuring industry to be more efficient. Some maintain that Americans are not prepared for such a fundamental shift, but Mr. Allen Hammond of the World Resources Institute is more optimistic. He said, 'Attitudes can change quickly. Look how fast the Berlin Wall came down! '"

In my search for helpful information I found two books which have been helpful to me in understanding what has been happening, is now happening, and what likely will be happening in the future in our world. One is "The Population Explosion" by Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich, published in 1992. The other, destined to be a classic, is "Post-Capitalist Society" by Peter F. Drucker, published in 1993.


The discussion in "The Population Explosion" is based on some relationships which the authors believe to be inherently representative of the world system. The book states: "The impact of any human group on the environment can be usefully viewed as the product of three different factors. The first is the number of people. The second is some measure of the average person's consumption of resources (which is also an index of affluence). Finally, the product of those two factors--the population and its per-capita consumption--is multiplied by an index of the environmental disruptiveness of the technologies that provide the goods consumed. The last factor can also be viewed as the environmental impact per quantity of consumption. In short, Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology, or I = PAT."

The authors state that "Consumption" is in some ways a more accurate term than "Affluence", but PAT is a much handier acronym than P C T. They also note that the formula is simplified rather than strictly rigorous since the multiplicative factors are not entirely independent. But they state that this simple formula, I = PAT, is the key to understanding the role of population growth in the environmental crisis. The book then proceeds to discuss each of the terms of the equation in fairly exhaustive manner. The book does not leave me at all optimistic about the future of the world system.


The book, "Post-Capitalist Society", is by 85 year old Peter Drucker. I have known Mr. Drucker by his book, "The Practice of Management", which has influenced me in my engineering management activities since about 1953. His management books and analyses of economics and society since 1939 have been widely read and respected throughout the world and have been translated into more than twenty languages. The cover of this new book, "Post-Capitalist Society," carries the following descriptive information:


“In 'Post-Capitalist Society' Peter Drucker describes how every few hundred years a sharp transformation has taken place and greatly affected society--its world view, its basic values, its business and economics, and its social and political structure. According to Drucker, we are right in the middle of another time of radical change, from the Age of Capitalism and the Nation-State to a Knowledge Society and a Society of Organizations. The primary resource in the post-capitalist society will be knowledge and the leading social groups will be "knowledge workers".


“Looking backward and forward, Drucker discusses the Industrial Revolution, the Productivity Revolution, the Management Revolution, and the governance of corporations. He explains the new functions of organizations, the economics of knowledge, and productivity as a social and economic priority. He covers the transformation from Nation-State to Megastate, the new pluralism of political systems, and the needed government turnaround. Finally, Drucker details the knowledge issues and the role and use of knowledge in post-capitalist society.


“Divided into three parts--Society, Polity, and Knowledge– 'Post-Capitalist Society' provides a searching look into the future as well as a vital analysis of the past, focusing on the challenges of the present transition period and how, if we can understand and respond to them, we can create a new future.”

Mr. Drucker's book is immensely important in understanding what our world has already come to and will be in the future, and how to deal with it in the future. That Mr. Drucker is fully aware of the world problems ahead is clearly indicated in the section of his book entitled "Polity" which discusses world changes from "nation-states to megastates"; changes from "internationalism" to "transnationalism, regionalism, and tribalism"; the growing need to improve the environment and to stamp out terrorism; the "return of tribalism" and the growing "need for roots". Finally he concluded with a chapter on "citizenship through the social sector" in which he pointed out that "knowledge societies" would have to "out-source" their requirements for consumer products to other types of societies and that the disappearance of "plant communities" in the U. S. would spark a "need for community" in many societies. But, I hope you will get a copy and read this important book.


Finally there came to my attention an article from the February 1994 edition of The Atlantic Monthly which is the most chilling of all the information I have read recently. The article is entitled "The Coming Anarchy: A Preview of the First Decades of the Twenty-First Century" by Robert D. Kaplan. The article is most chilling because it describes "break ups" in our world system which we all recognize as already underway and then describes a very believable scenario for the continuation of these disasters in the very near future. The article describes how scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet.

Until I found this Atlantic Monthly article by Robert D. Kaplan, most everything I had read had dealt with world problems as with a homogenous world, a "one world" system. The World3 computer model shows the world continuing along with no real problems for several decades until a catastrophic collapse comes all at once. So too the model based on the I = PAT equation predicts that break down of the world system occurs all at once. In actuality we do not have a "one world" system in which solutions to problems can flow out to the entire world instantly over a perfect infrastructure. For instance, even today a famine in one area of Africa cannot be quickly alleviated even though there is ample surplus food available in another part of the world. The

infrastructure does not exist in many parts of the world for the transportation and distribution of the food to the points of need. Even when the transportation and distribution problems are solved, oftentimes the solutions cannot be applied because of tribal warfare in the famine area with marauding bands of guerrilla forces stealing the relief supplies and otherwise preventing distribution.

Mr. Kaplan's article, "The Coming Anarchy," takes into account the fact that the world system will actually break up a piece at a time. Indeed, he points out that the piecemeal break up is already starting in several parts of the world, especially West Africa. The predictions of the article are described as follows: "Nations break up under the tidal flow of refugees from environmental and social disaster. As borders crumble, another type of boundary is erected--a wall of disease. Wars are fought over scarce resources, especially water, and war itself becomes continuous with crime, as armed bands of stateless marauders clash with the private security forces of the elites."

The following quotation from Mr. Kaplan's article alerts us to what he wants to get across to us:


"THE ENVIRONMENT AS A HOSTILE POWER. For a while the media will continue to ascribe riots and other violent upheavals abroad mainly to ethnic and religious conflict. But as these conflicts multiply, it will become apparent that something else is afoot, making more and more places like Nigeria, India, and Brazil ungovernable.


"Mention 'the environment’ or 'diminishing natural resources' in foreign-policy circles and you meet a brick wall of skepticism or boredom. To conservatives especially, the very terms seem flaky. Public-policy foundations have contributed to the lack of interest by funding narrowly focused environmental studies replete with technical jargon which foreign-affairs experts just let pile up on their desks.


"It is time to understand 'the environment' for what it is: the national-security issue of the early twenty-first century. The political and strategic impact of surging populations, spreading disease, deforestation and soil erosion, water depletion, air pollution, and, possibly, rising sea levels in critical, overcrowded regions like the Nile Delta and Bangladesh--developments that will prompt mass migrations and, in turn, incite group conflicts--will be the core foreign-policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate, arousing the public and uniting assorted interests left over from the Cold War "


The World3 computer program and the I = PAT equation are clever state-of-the-art ways to bring human knowledge to bear on world system problems. Every input at work in the operation of our world system has been brought into the study models except one, the one that humanists are always prone to leave out. Christians understand that the one input that is missing is the most important of all for it is the input of Almighty God, the Creator and Operator of our world.

None of the above described articles and books acknowledge or even mention that the purposes of God are inevitably being carried out on earth daily. Religious beliefs in an Almighty God are only mentioned as divisive elements serving to make problems in the world. Peter Drucker in his book "Post-Capitalist Society" is an exception in that he does mention the Christian church as a positive force in America because of the volunteer spirit among Christians to help alleviate the problems of society. But even Mr. Drucker does not acknowledge the fact that God is actually in charge and will accomplish His purposes in the final outcome of the world dilemma.

Christians are taught truth by revelation from God, through the revelation inherently visible in His creation and through His word, the Bible. All true scientific understanding comes from investigation and consideration of the "visible" things God has created but must be interpreted finally within the context of the "invisible" (spiritual) things He has revealed in the Bible. Thus Christians can understand and believe the scientific predictions that humanists are making concerning the future of our world environment. But the reactions that Christians have to the ominous rumblings of world upheaval may be quite different from those of humanists who do not have faith in God's revelations found in the Bible concerning His spiritual purposes.

To Christians God reveals that His spiritual purposes are coming to pass through whatever happens upon the earth. In dealing with the great maelstrom of evil upon the earth, God is at once both "just and the Justifier." God executes justice on earth through causing those who have rejected faith in Him to perform as His "vessels of wrath" against each other. At the same time God acts as "Justifier" to those who exhibit faith in Him, and uses them as His "vessels of mercy" to propagate to every person the saving gospel of Christ so that God may become "Justifier" to as many as will believe in Him. (Romans 3:26; 9:22-23.) At all times Christians should be primarily involved in serving as God's "vessels of mercy."

Consequently, Christians are not only concerned to help relieve the physical suffering of their fellow humans caught in the catastrophes of world breakdown, Christians are even more concerned to preach the saving gospel of Christ to them. After all, human beings must all die, sooner or later, whether as victims of world environmental breakdown or simply as victims of old age. For "it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment" (Hebrews 9:27). None of us can escape death of the body, but through active faith in the gospel of Christ, any of us can escape the judgment of condemnation. Thus, the primary Christian function as God's "vessel of mercy" is to preach the gospel of Christ to those about to perish so they may embrace faith in God's saving grace while they are still alive on earth.

Apparently, the motive of those people who have written the above reviewed articles and books is to make readers aware of sudden great and violent changes that will happen in our world in the near future, and to stimulate them to change their lifestyles to keep the most hospitable world environment possible under the circumstances. I'm sure that there are also motives of pity for the already struggling people caught up in catastrophe and of desire to help them. However, there is also growing sentiment among many people of America that, no matter what happens in the rest of the world, we must at all costs prevent such catastrophes

from happening in our own country. The alarm being raised, however, is meant to alert us in America that we cannot escape eventually coming to the same fate as the rest of the world. Although we may be able to postpone for awhile some of the effects of human environmental breakdown in our country by selfishly focusing just on what is best for America, we will do better in the long run by cooperating and sharing resources with the rest of the world.

My motive in writing this, memorandum, to Christians who are "in the world but not of the world," is several fold. I too would like to see lifestyles modified as necessary to make our world system a friendly one for as many future generations as possible. I would like to see us leading our secular countrymen in helping to alleviate human suffering due to the onset of world breakdown. But more than that, we Christians have a unique responsibility that our secular countrymen do not have, to "go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature." And we have this responsibility as long as we are alive on earth and there are humans of God's creation who need the gospel.

Perhaps this audit of our world system contained in these cited articles and books finally will lead us to the conclusion that we stand at the threshold of world catastrophe on an apocalyptical scale! The fact is, we do stand at such a threshold! God knew this 1900 years ago when He sent His Son into our world to be our Savior and our new Adam. Surely Jesus Christ saw mankind as on the threshold of world catastrophe 1900 years ago and sees us there now! As Christians we are followers of Jesus Christ who gave us our "marching orders" 1900 years ago for use in just such a world situation as our generation is facing.


How do so few Christians preach the gospel to such a vast and rapidly growing population soon to reach 9 or 10 billion souls? Providentially, as the population has been exploding, means of communication have also been exploding in type and quantity. Not only can homes be accessed via local AM and FM radio and TV facilities, but homes are becoming more accessible from distant remote locations via shortwave and satellite transmissions which reach across national borders directly into homes. Shortwave radio broadcasting takes the preacher's gospel message directly into homes throughout the world which have shortwave receivers. And many homes in many countries do have shortwave receivers. The rapidly growing field of satellite radio can take the preacher's gospel message directly into homes throughout the world via relay into the AM and FM receivers in those homes. There is promise in the very near future of broadcasts being transmitted from satellites directly into homes without the need for relay via other radio facilities. Pioneer broadcasts using direct satellite transmissions are already underway. There is also promise of completely new broadcasting facilities utilizing new DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting) techniques. Such improved techniques will eventually be available to both local (AM and FM) and long distance (shortwave) radio broadcasting.

Our Christian brotherhood has but a single shortwave transmitter which reaches across borders into other lands. Owned and operated by the World Christian Broadcasting Corporation, this transmitter's broadcasts reach into the far eastern world but are limited to five hours per day to portions of China in the Chinese language, three hours per day to portions of Siberian Russia in the Russian language, and, two hours per day to the Pacific coast of Asia in the English language. Additionally, some of the Chinese language programing is transmitted into China each week through arrangement with a Russian shortwave station in Kharbarovsk, Russia. Also, some of the Russian language programming is transmitted into FM and AM receivers throughout Russia for one hour each week through arrangement with the all Russia radio network. This illustrates some of the ways that the gospel of Christ is being and can be preached to other portions of the world.

The broadcasting work of World Christian Broadcasting, which has been carried out successfully for eleven years now, cries out for expansion into other portions of the world and for even better coverage of countries of the far east. Expansion will require additional broadcasting and programming equipment, possibly new transmission sites, and new staff capable of producing programs in additional languages. Latest state-of-the-art equipment is available. Under the supervision of the present experienced programming and engineering staff at World Christian Broadcasting, necessary new staff can be recruited and trained. Expansion is limited only by lack of funds.

As many Christians know there are other efforts underway in our brotherhood to preach the gospel in the U. S. and in certain other countries through the mass media of television, AM/FM and shortwave radio, and through the printing and distribution of books and magazines. These efforts need to be supported and expanded. But all of our brotherhood efforts combined are but "a drop in a bucket" compared to the needs for the gospel presented by our exploding world population.

By and large our great brotherhood does not seem to be accepting its commission by our Lord to world evangelization. It seems obvious that we could be doing much more. There seems to be little consideration given to the use of the latest techniques of mass media which might make worldwide evangelization possible. Many of us in the U. S. seem to have placed priority on the religio-social activities of the local American members rather than on commitment and sacrifice by the local members for the sake of propagation of the gospel abroad. It seems to me that this attitude tends to nullify our Lord's supreme sacrifice for the great masses of the world's population.

It is my prayer that a fresh look at the precarious condition of the billions of human souls on earth today will wake us up to a fresh commitment to our Christian vocation to preach the gospel to all God's creation.

Francis M. Perry, October, 1994

Bibliography (updated January 1995):

"Balanced on a Pencil Point," by Brian Hayes, The American Scientist, Volume 81, November-December 1993.

“The Population Explosion,” a book by Paul R. Ehrlich and Anne H. Ehrlich, published in 1992.

"The Coming Anarchy," by Robert D. Kaplan, The Atlantic Monthly, February 1994.

"Must It Be the Rest Against the West," by Matthew Connelly and Paul Kennedy, The Atlantic Monthly, December 1994.

"The Age of Social Transformation," by Peter F. Drucker, The Atlantic Monthly, November 1994.

“Post Capitalist Society,” a book by Peter F. Drucker, 1993. (Available from Special Markets Department, HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 10 East 53rd Street, New York, NY-10022.)